Kd's e-pathsala Educational Sociology Introductory Concept of Sociology of Education

Introductory Concept of Sociology of Education

Concept of Sociology
The word ‘Sociology’ is derived from the Latin words ‘Socious’ and ‘Logos’. The word ‘Socious’ means ‘Society’ and the word ‘Logos’ means ‘Science’. So the word ‘Sociology’ literally means ‘Science of Study’.
Sociology is the science of scientific discussion of human societies or groups. Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions. Sociology’s subject matter is diverse, ranging from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole societies. The term Sociology was first used in August Comet’s book Positive Philosophy.
  • According to Ginsberg, “Sociology may be defined as the study of society; that is of the web of human interactions and relationships”
  • According to D. Ritzer, “Sociology is the study of individuals in a social setting that includes groups, organizations, cultures and societies. Sociologists study the interrelationships between individuals , organizations, cultures and societies”
  • According to Duncan, Sociology is the scientific study of dynamic process of the interaction of person.
So, analyzing the above definitions, it can be said that the science that deals with the relationship of individuals within the society, mutual understanding and the functions of the group, that is Sociology.
Educational Sociology
sociology of education is defined as a study of the relations between education and society. It is an investigation of the sociological processes involved in an educational institution. To Ottaway (1962), it is a social study and in so far as its method is scientific, it is a branch of social science. Pedagogy is a process that brings about changes in human behavior and helps in adaptation to changing environment. People are one of the main elements of social environment. Each person in society learns to understand through mutual understanding and through that understanding develops its sense. Through the mutual understanding of society and individuals, a specific agenda and subject knowledge is established, which is called Educational Sociology.
Sociology of Education, therefore, may be explained as the scientific analysis of the social processes and social patterns involved in the educational system. Brookover and Gottlieb consider that ―this assumes education is a combination of social acts and that sociology is an analysis of human interaction.‖ Educational process goes on in a formal as well as in informal situations. Sociological study of the human interaction in education may comprise both situations and might guide to the development of scientific generalizations of human relations in the educational system. The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences influence education and its outcomes.
In the late 19th century, three different trends emerged in the study of education and sociology together. Namely,-
  1. Sociological Foundation and Education
  2. Educational Sociology
  3. Sociology of Education
As defined by various sociologists, sociology of education is the application of general principles and conclusions of sociology to the administration and process of education. According to this orientation, sociological principles have been applied by treating education as a distinct social unit.
  • Peter Harold (1968) defines sociology of education as “the study of origins, organizations, institutions and development of human society”.
  • Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) who is regarded as the ‘father’ of sociology of education clearly defines sociology of education as “a systematic study sociological perspective”.
  • George Payne, “By educational sociology we mean that, the science which describes and explains the institutions, social groups and social processes, that is the social relationship in which and through which the individual gains and organizes his experience”.
Thus sociology of education is a special aspect of sociology as a whole which deals with the structural and dynamic aspects of the educational process in the social context.


Relationship between Sociology and Education
Before understanding the relationship, it is very important to understand the meaning of education and sociology. 
Education means to nourish or to bring up education means to draw out the best in the child. And it involves a process of modification of behavior, socialization, social efficiency, cultural isolation, adjustment to environment, harmonious development all down the government of the personality.
Sociology can be defined as the study of man and its environment in relation with each other. It is concerned with social interaction, social relations or institutions, social groups, social structure, social change and other social phenomena.

1. Sociology and the concept of education: Education is a social process which helps individual participation in social consciousness means education over you about what is happening in the society, what changes are coming in the society. It develops individual participation in those changes so it is conscious of who is aware you about these social changes, 

2. Sociology and the aim of education: The main aim of education is to develop social quality, social feeling, social activities and social efficiency and prepare the individual for democratic living. Yes, you are a social human being. You have to survive in society. So it is very important that you should learn the principles, norms or ethics of the society.

3. Sociology and functions of education: When you absorb the different traditions, when you accept the different cultures with the help of education, development of new social patterns, you learn how your society is changing day by day, creative and constructive role. You learn to survive in society.

4. Sociology and curriculum: Curriculum plays a very important role. It is very important when your social needs are changing day by day, when your society is changing day by day. For example, subjects like social studies, health and physical education, music and arts education subjects can be added and must be updated. According to these social changes,

5. Sociology and matter of teaching: Project matter, We can use Group problem solving. I encourage cooperative learning, team learning. All these methods will help in the social development of the child. 

6. Sociology and discipline:
Development of discipline requires a higher social environment. Discipline is a social feeling and this feeling is possible only when a man takes a part in social activities. So it is very important that men should participate in social activities. By participating in these activities. He will learn discipline, how to behave in the society, 
Nature of Sociology of Education
Educational sociology is not limited to specific nature or specific period .Its nature is of universal type. Educational sociology is not merely theoretical. According to Young, educational sociology deals with human interactions. So pedagogy has developed educational sociology as an applied branch of sociology. Social interaction is the natural aspect of educational social theory. That is, in social life, social groups, social institutions, social relations, and social communication system are related to socialization. For this sociology has provided the theory and data and pedagogy has provided the policy and strategy. The combined flow of these two has created educational sociology.
The nature of educational sociology can be seen as follows:

1. Applied Branches: Educational sociology is an applied branch of sociology. The principles and methods of sociology are scientifically applied in the field of education.

2. Discuss the relationship between education and society: Sociology of education discusses the deep relationship between education and society.

3. Progress of society: The nature of educational sociology is to promote the development and progress of society through education.

4. Proper Application of Social Processes: With the help of educational sociology, proper application of social processes is possible in education.

5. Harmonization between individual and society: Harmonious relationship between individual and society is established through the application of principles and methods of sociology in education.
Therefore, various social institutions such as schools and social relations, social change, social progress, social process and social organization have been applied in the balanced progress of scientific consciousness.


Scope of Sociology of Education
The scope of sociology of education is vast.
1. It is concerned with such general concepts such as society itself, culture, community, class, environment, socialization, internalization, accommodation, assimilation, cultural lag, subculture, status, role and so forth.

2. It deals with analysis of educational situations in various geographical and ethnological contexts. Eg. Educational situations in rural, urban and tribal areas, in different parts of the country/world, with the background of different races, cultures etc.

3. It helps us to understand the effect of various social agencies like family, school on the students.

4. It studies the relationship between social class, culture, language, parental education, occupation and the achievement of the students

5. It studies the role and structure of school, peer group on the personality of the students

6. It provides an understanding of the problems such as racism, communalism, gender discrimination etc.
Thus scope of educational sociology is both theoretical and practical. it is the scientific study of how people live in social groups, especially study of the education  that is obtained by living in social groups and the education that is needed by the member to live efficiently in social groups.


  1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/347241004_Definition_and_importance_of_sociology#:~:text=Ritzer%20(‘Sociology’%2C1979,%2C%20cultures%20and%20societies%E2%80%9D%20E.
  2. https://ddceutkal.ac.in/Syllabus/MA_SOCIOLOGY/Paper-16.pdf
  3. https://sitwe.wordpress.com/2010/12/27/what-is-sociology-of-education/#:~:text=Peter%20Harold%20(1968)%20defines%20sociology,It%20studies%20initial%20specific%20conditions.
  4. https://ddceutkal.ac.in/Syllabus/MA_Education/Paper-2.pdf