Kd's e-pathsala Inclusive Education Learning Disabilities : Concept, Types, Symptoms and Remedial Measures

Learning Disabilities : Concept, Types, Symptoms and Remedial Measures

What is LD?

The term “Learning Disability” (LD) is a relative new one. It was first used by Dr. Samuel Kirk of Chicago, USA in 1963. Learning disability refers to a disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or perform mathematical calculations.


Definition of LD?

Learning disability as defined in IDEA:

When the child does not achieve adequately for the child’s age or meet State-approved grade-level standards in one or more of the following areas:


    — Oral expression

    — Listening comprehension

    — Written expression

    — Basic reading skill

    — Reading fluency skills

    — Reading comprehension

    — Mathematics calculation or problem solving


Classification of Learning Disabilities


It is the most common type of LD affective in children. It refers to a specific difficulty in the area of reading. The term generally used instead of dyslexia are severe reading disability, primary reading disability, specific reading disability and word blindness.


Some common Dyslexia signs and symptoms


  • Difficulty reading, including reading aloud.
  • Slow and labor-intensive reading and writing.
  • Problems spelling.
  • Avoiding activities that involve reading.
  • Mispronouncing names or words, or problems retrieving words.

Dysgraphia is a neurological disorder characterized by writing disabilities. Specially, the disorder causes a person’s writing to be distorted or incorrect.




Some common Dysgraphia signs and symptoms


  • Cramped grip, which may lead to a sore hand.
  • Difficulty spacing things out on paper or within margins (poor spatial planning)
  • Frequent erasing.
  • Inconsistency in letter and word spacing.
  • Poor spelling, including unfinished words or missing words or letters.
  • Unusual wrist, body, or paper position while writing.



Dyscalculia is the type of learning disability resulting in difficulty in learning numerical and mathematical ideas and concepts. It includes all types of math’s problems ranging from an inability to understand the meaning of numbers, to an inability to apply mathematical principles to solve problems. Dyscalculia, which means inability to calculate, is the most widely used term for disabilities in arithmetic and mathematics.




Some common Dyscalculia signs and symptoms
  • difficulty counting backwards.
  • difficulty remembering ‘basic’ facts.
  • slow to perform calculations.
  • weak mental arithmetic skills.
  • a poor sense of numbers & estimation.
  • Difficulty in understanding place value.
  • Addition is often the default operation.
  • High levels of mathematics anxiety.

Causes of Learning Disability 
1. An inherited condition, meaning that certain genes passed from the parents affected the brain development, for example Fragile X.
2. Chromosome abnormalities such as Down’s syndrome or Turner syndrome.
3. Complications during birth resulting in a lack of oxygen to the brain.
4. A very premature birth.
5. Mother’s illness during pregnancy.
6. The mother drinks during pregnancy, for example Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
7. A debilitating illness or injury in early childhood affecting brain development, for example a road traffic accident or child abuse.
8. Contact with damaging material (like radiation).
9. Neglect, and/or a lack of mental stimulation early in life.
10. Some people with learning disabilities have additional physical disabilities and/or sensory impairments.

Preventive Measures of Specific Learning Disabilities 
1. Act to Prevent Disabilities During Pregnancy.
2. Quit Smoking and Avoid Secondhand Smoke.
3. Know the Dangers of Substance Use.
4. Take Recommended Vitamins and Meet Nutritional Needs.
5. Screen Newborns for Early Intervention.
6. Early Eye Examinations Are Important.