Kd's e-pathsala History of Education Secondary Education Commission_Mudaliar Commission (1952-53)

Secondary Education Commission_Mudaliar Commission (1952-53)

After the Independence period several education commissions were formed, one of them being the Secondary Education Commission. The Secondary Education commission was appointed by the government of India in terms of their Resolution to bring changes in the present education system and make it better for the Nation. The Secondary Education commission formed under the chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar. That’s why it is also called the Mudaliar Commission. He was the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Government of India appointed the Secondary Education Commission on September 23, 1952, under the chairmanship of A. Mudaliar. After a few months of hard work, the commission submitted a very lengthy report on August 29, 1953. Report containing 311 pages.  

Members of the Commission :

The Commission consisted of 9 members. Dr. A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar (Chairman), Principal John Christie, Dr. Kenneth Rast Williams, Mrs. Hansa Mehta, Shri. J.A. Taraporevala, Dr. K.L. Shrimali, Shri M.T. Vyas, Shri K.G. Saiyidain, Principal A.N. Basu (Assistant Secretary to the Commission).

Background of the Commission Formation :

The commission has observed the principle that secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage, that at the end of this period, the student should be in a position, if he wishes, to enter on the responsibilities of life and take up some useful vocations. It is now generally recognized that the period of secondary education covers the age-group of about to 17 years. Properly planned education, covering about 7 years should enable the school to give a thorough training in the courses of study taken by the student and also help him/her to attain a reasonable degree of maturity in knowledge, understanding and judgement which would stand him/her I rood stead in life. And commission founds some defects of Secondary Education, the defects are :



(1) The education provided in the schools is isolated from life.

(2) Secondary Education was bookish and less practical.
(3) Lack of diversified courses.
(4) Secondary education primary aim of admission to university.
(5) Inadequacy of co-curricular activities.
(6) Method of teaching traditional based.
(7) Salaries or other conditions of service of teachers are not satisfactory.

Major Recommendations of Secondary Education Commission

Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education :

(1) To Produce Ideal Citizens of the sovereign republic of India.
(2) Character development of the youth of adolescents.
(3) To Develop Capacity for Earning Money, be able to earn enough for maintaining himself.
(4) Secondary education should develop the quality of leadership in students.
(5) Develop Human Virtues (cooperation, discipline, humility, love, kindness).
(6) To develop vocational capacity and skill according to individual aptitude.

New Organizational pattern of Secondary Education :

The Commission has recommended that the secondary education should be for children between 11 to 17 years of age. It has divided this seven years’ education into two parts- (1) Junior High School stage for three years and (2) High School for four years. The Commission has recommended the introduction of a three years’ degree course. For this secondary education should continue up to the eleventh class and the twelfth class should be added to the first degree course (B.A., B.Sc. or B.Com.) of the university. 


Curriculum :

For Lower Secondary Education :

Curriculum for the lower secondary stage would be undiversified, general and common for all children, and would consists of :

(a) English

(b) Mother tongue
(c) Mathematics
(d) General Science
(e) Social studies
(f) Craft
(g) Physical education, Art, Music etc.

For Higher Secondary Education :

The curriculum of secondary education would be of two types : (a) Core curriculum, which is common for all the students, includes language. General Science, Social Studies and Craft, (b) In addition to the core curriculum every student has to take three subjects at the higher stage out of the following seven groups:

  1. Humanities (Classical language or a third language, history, geography, mathematics, music, logic, domestic science)
  2. Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Mathematics. Physiology and Hygiene not to be taken with Biology),
  3. Technical (Applied Mathematics and Geometrical Drawing, Applied Science, Elements of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering),
  4. Commercial (Book-keeping, Commercial Practice, Commercial Geography. Short-hand and Type-writing),
  5. Agricultural (General Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Horticulture and Gardening, Agricultural Chemistry and Botany),
  6. Fine Arts (History of art, Drawing and Designing, painting, Modelling, Music, Dancing),
  7. Home Science (Home Economics, Nutrition and Cooking, Mother Craft and Child Care, Household management and Home Nursing).

The school system (including 12 year school education) proposed by the commission implied abolition of the Intermediate course. Undergraduate education would commence after the higher secondary i.e., Class XII. The schools would now be multipurpose schools, offering different streams in the same school.

The Commission, however, upheld the separate existence of (a) Agricultural schools to offer courses in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry etc, (b) Technical schools, either independent or connected with multipurpose schools, (c) Apprenticeship system should be widely introduced, if necessary by legislation. (d) Public schools (for 5 year!), (e) other Residential schools in the interest of close teacher-pupil relation and co-curricular activities, (f) there should not be any different type of education for girls. But special provisions should be made for Home Science for girls.

Some other recommendation proposed by commission

Medium of Instruction: The mother tongue or the State language should be made the medium of instruction. The students should be taught at least two languages at the junior high school stage. And the secondary stage a student should learn at least three languages (three language formula, with state language, regional language and English)

Method of Teaching: Teaching should not impart knowledge only, but also inculcate desirable values. Emphasis should be shifted from verbalism and memorization to learning through purposeful, concrete, realistic situations, (Activity or Project Method might be tried). Emphasis should be placed upon clear thinking and expression. Students should be trained to acquire the qualities of group life and cooperative work.

Selection of textbooks: The Commission has stated that text-books should be selected on the basis of their merits and utility. For this purpose the Commission has recommended the appointment of a High Power Committee which will select books for all the classes.

Religious and Moral Instruction: Education of character should be a responsibility of the teacher. Personal contact should ensure discipline. Co-curricular activities should form a part of education. School self-Govt should be fostered. N.C.C., Junior Red Cross etc. should be encouraged.

Examination: There might be two external examinations at the end of class X and at the end of class XII. Objective tests should be emphasized. Cumulative Records should be maintained with due credit for weekly or monthly tests.

Guidance and Counselling: Selection of streams would necessitate guidance of experts. Hence, trained Guidance Officers and Career Masters should be appointed in Secondary Schools.

Welfare of Students: All students should be medically examined every year. School medical services should be organized. Teachers should be given first aid training and physical training. School tiffin or mid-day meal for students should be provided. A complete record of physical activities of every student should be maintained.

Inspection of School: The role of school inspector is to examine the problems of schools and view them comprehensively and help the teachers to carry out his advice and recommendations.

Teacher Training: Two types of institutions should be conducted for one year training, and for two year training. Refresher courses should be extensively organized. Training Colleges should conduct research. Trained graduates with 3 years of experience may be allowed to prepare for a Master’s degree in Education.

Finance: The Commission has given the following suggestions like,- A cess called the ‘Industrial Education’ cess be levied, the amount collected to be utilized for the furtherance of Technical and Vocational education at the secondary stage.


Defects of Secondary Education :

The defects of secondary education have been pointed out by a number of commissions. Secondary education is too academic and far removed from the problems of life and therefore it is incapable of fulfilling its second objective of equipping boys and girls to enter life confidently and earn their living. Let us now summarize the defects of secondary education commission :

(1) The commission emphasized on book learning, The instructions are bookish. Answers are crammed. Examinations are passed. But no ability is produced for creative thinking and expression.

(2) In the recommendations of the commission report Co curricular activities are neglected. 

(3) School education is one-sided. It trains the intellect and leaves other aspects of personality undeveloped. It aims only at mental growth and development.

(4) The school education is unilateral. Secondary schools are one-track schools. They prepare students only for the university. There is little scope for diversification of studies.

(5) Guidance and Counselling Facilities Inadequate. To supply a trained guidance worker to every school is difficult. It would be unrealistic to think of providing qualified counsellors to all schools.


Conclusion :

The recommendations of Mudaliar commission  emphasized on the dominant needs of the present situation and recommended for bringing  revolutionary changes in Secondary education. We know the report carries many defects but instead, the report of the Mudaliar Commission was accepted by the Government of India and the new scheme launched with effect from1956. The reorganized pattern continued till the report of the Kothari Commission (1964-66) was given effect to.