Kd's e-pathsala Educational Philosophy Concept, Definition, Objectives, Classification, Needs of Value Education

Concept, Definition, Objectives, Classification, Needs of Value Education

Values’ education is a term used to name several things, and there is much academic controversy surrounding it. Some regard it as all aspects of the process by which teachers (and other adults) transmit values to pupils. Others see it as an activity that can take place in any organization during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in a position of authority or are more experienced, to make explicit those values underlying their own behaviour, to assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behaviour for their own and others’ long term well-being and to reflect on and acquire other values and behaviour which they recognize as being more effective for long term well-being of self and others. This means that values education can take place at home, as well as in schools, colleges, universities, offender institutions and voluntary youth organizations. There are two main approaches to values education. Some see it as inculcating or transmitting a set of values which often come from societal or religious rules or cultural ethics.

The German Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche first used the word ‘Values’ in 1880. Until then the word value was used as a verb meaning to value something or as a singular noun meaning the measure of something for example, the value of money, food or labour. Nietzsche used the word ‘Values’ in plural to denote moral beliefs and attitudes that were personal and subjective. In modern democratic society, this concept of values has changed. The word ‘Values’ has come to be used in plurals for over a century. As the world is becoming more civilized, education is becoming more or less materialistic and old value traditions are being slowly given up. It is an imperative need in the present context that the whole educational system should be restructured to include value education in the process of education.

Values are principles, fundamental convictions, and ideals, standards of life which act as general guide to behaviour or as a reference point in decision making. Values are beliefs about what is right and what is wrong and what is important in life. Value literally means something that has a price, precious, dear and worthwhile, one is ready to sacrifice for. It is a set of principles which guide the standard of behaviour. Values are desirable and held in esteem. They give strength to a person’s character by occupying a central place in his life. It reflects one’s attitudes, choices, decisions, judgments, relationships, dreams and vision.



Definitions of Value Education:

According to Perry (1968), “Value means the relation of an object to a valuing subject.”


According to Hindzay (1966), “By values we mean a person’s idea of what is desirable, what he actually wants”


In the words of John Dewey (1966), “Value education means primarily to prize to esteem to appraise, holding it dear and also the act of passing judgment upon the nature and amount of its value as compared with something else”.

Objectives of Value Education:
  1. To improve the integral growth of humans begins.
  2. To create attitudes and improvement towards sustainable lifestyle.
  3. To increase awareness about our national history, our cultural heritage, constitutional rights, national integration, community development and environment.
  4. To create and develop awareness about the values and their significance and role.
  5. To know about various living and nonliving organisms and their interaction with the environment.


Explicit values education- Explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educators use in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to value questions.

Implicit values education- Implicit values education on the other hand covers those aspects of the educational experience resulting in value influence learning, which can be related to the concept of hidden curriculum. This discussion on implicit and explicit raises the philosophical problem of whether or not an unintentional action can be called education.
Classification of Values:
  1. Personal Values: Personal values mean the desires of individuals whatever they are in the social relationship. Some of the personal values are excellence, honesty, self-confidence, self-motivation, punctuality, ambition, courage, creativity, imagination etc.
  2. Social Values: Individuals cannot live in the world without having interaction with others. People want social values like love, affection, friendship, peer group, reference group, imparity, hospitality, courage, service, justice, freedom, patience, forgiveness, coordination, sympathy, tolerance etc. Social values are more important for a healthy, good environment for every organization.
  3. Moral Values: Moral values impart respect for others and ourselves, respecting the rights of others, keeping promises, avoiding unnecessary problems with others, avoiding cheating and dishonesty, showing gratitude to others and encouraging them to work.
  4. Spiritual values: The ultimate ethical value is called spiritual value. Spiritual values are piety, meditation, yoga, self-discipline, control, purity, and devotion to God etc. Spiritual values highlight the principles of self-restraint. Self discipline contentment, reduction of wants, freedom from general greed and austerity.
  5. Universal Values: It is universal values that indicate the essence of the human condition. It is through Universal Values that we link ourselves with humanity and the cosmos. Universal Values can be experienced as life, joy, brotherhood, love, compassion, service, bliss, truth and eternity.
  6. Cultural Values: Cultural values are concerned with right and wrong, good and bad, customs and behaviour. Cultural values are reflected in language, ethics, social hierarchy, aesthetics, education, law, economics, philosophy and social institutions of every kind.

After classifying values, we must be determining which of the above values are most meaningful. Universal values are at the top of the list. The others have their place but it is through Universal values that we experience a sense of oneness with the human race Universal values must be our foundation if we are to enjoy a rich, profound, fulfilling life.



Mahatma Gandhi found that there is a great deal of moral degradation in the society. The main causes of moral degeneration are:


  • Lack of respect for the sanctity of human life.
  • Breakdown of parental control of children in families
  • Lack of respect for authority, seen through the brazen breaking of the law and total disregard for rules and regulations
  • Crime and corruption
  • Abuse of alcohol and drugs
  • Abuse of women and children, and other vulnerable members of society.
  • Lack of respect for other people and property.



UNESCO organized a ‘Values in Education’ Summit in 1998, to encourage schools to review their curricula in terms of value education. The fact that a world body like UNESCO should stress on the need of teaching ‘values’ in the school system is in itself a statement of the gravity of the problems created by gradual disappearance of a civil society and the preservation of democracy.


Value education, both formal and informal, may encourage students to:

  1. Develop their own personal moral codes and have a concern for others.
  2. Reflect on experiences and search for meaning and patterns in their experiences.
  3. Have self respect and respect for commonly held values such as honesty, truthfulness and justice.
  4. Make socially responsible judgments and be able to provide justification for decisions and actions.

With regard to teachers:

  1. Teachers are predominant in theoretical, social, religious and economic values.
  2. Gender, educational training, and experience do not influence teachers’ values.
  3. Teachers of urban schools have higher moral and economic values than the rural schools. So, the location of the school influences teachers’ values.
  4. Teachers differ in their values because of the type of schools and as such it influences the students’ values also.
  5. The age influences the teachers’ aesthetic values.
  6. Co-curricular activities provided and the practice followed in inculcating values to students influence students’ value.

Essence of Curriculum for Value Education in Schools:

  1. Education for human values should be considered as a central core in the entire life of the school and outside school also.
  2. Some aspects of human values can be dealt with within the prescribed periods of the time table, but most of the vital aspects have to be kept in view and dealt with within the whole school and home life as occasions arise.
  3. Some of the aspects can be taken in the larger functions of the whole school like daily school prayer, social service camps, sports meet, festival days, special days in memory of great people, National Days, etc.
  4. All teachers are teachers of human values at all times of school like, practising what they teach or preach.
  5. Internalization of value in thought, word and deed, is the goal and not mere knowledge of it.